Privacy & Scaling Explorations

Enhancing Ethereum through cryptographic research.

Explore our work

We explore new use cases for zero-knowledge proofs and other cryptographic primitives through research and proof-of-concepts.

What we work on

Explore how we integrate ZK primitives into decentralized applications


Unirep allows anonymous members of a group to give, receive, and prove reputation without revealing their identity. Applications or people can act as attesters and build their own reputation tokens on top of a shared Unirep contract.


ZK-kit is a set of NPM modules (algorithms or utility functions) that can be reused in different projects and zero-knowledge protocols, making it easier for developers to access ready-to-use and tested libraries for common tasks.

Rate Limiting Nullifier

RLN is a construct based on zero-knowledge proofs that enables spam prevention mechanism for decentralized, anonymous environments. In anonymous environments, the identity of the entities is unknown.

BLS Wallet

Reduce transaction costs on evm-L2s using BLS signatures. The smart contract wallet also includes: recovery, multi-action, gas-less transactions, and upgradability.


A zk-rollup that can generate zk proofs for general EVM verification. This allows us to build a fully EVM-compatible zk-Rollup, which any existing Ethereum application can easily migrate to. for Everyone

Infrastructure to make it easy for any community to run their own CLR round with

Trusted Setup
Trusted Setup

Open source infrastructure for running a trusted setup ceremony, in which many people participate in generating entropy which will secure a cryptographic protocol. Perpetual Powers of Tau: A universal ceremony for the initial phase of a trusted setup. MPC Phase 2 UI: UI for a CLI or browser-based ceremony for the second, circuit-specific phase for Groth-16 SNARKs.


Anonymous and private chat environments, using Interep for a privacy preserving registry and sybil resistance and RLN for spam protection.


Zkopru is an optimistic rollup that uses zero knowledge proofs to enable private, low-cost transactions with ETH, ERC-20s and NFTs on layer 2.


Collaborative content curation of online communities using a double-or-nothing challenge mechanism.

MACI (Minimal Anti-Collusion Infrastructure)
MACI (Minimal Anti-Collusion Infrastructure)

MACI uses zero knowledge proofs for collusion resistance in blockchain voting (such as quadratic funding mechanisms) by making it impossible for anyone other than the vote coordinator to verify how a specific user voted. MACI also ensures correct execution of the votes, allowing anyone to verify the results.


TLSNotary leverages the ubiquitous TLS protocol to allow users to privately export their data from any webserver in a provable way.


Semaphore is a protocol, designed to be a simple and generic privacy layer for Ethereum DApps. Using zero knowledge, Ethereum users can prove their membership of a group and send signals such as votes or endorsements without revealing their original identity.


Private reputation and identity system allowing services to verify that users belong to a certain group or meet certain reputation criteria without revealing their identities. Users can anonymously export reputation from platforms such as Twitter and Github.

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PSE is a team of 50 members, below you can find some of our team member's information.


Full stack / systems engineer; working on RLN

Geoff Lamperd

Full stack engineer; working on Trusted Setup and Interep


Full stack engineer; working on Semaphore and Interep


All things UX & pretty designs. Unirep and other projects

James Zaki

BLS Wallet project lead and software engineer

Justin Martin

Zero knowledge sorting hat. Making opportunities for smart people to advance ZK and privacy

Jacob Caban-Tomski

Full stack engineer; working on BLS Wallet


TLSNotary Project Lead and Software Engineer

Beyondr (Jeo)

Designer & developer. Main project is ZKOPRU at the moment but also working on other auxillary projects.